Between Angela and Myself we have Lost 150# in the Last 3 Years

Between Angela and Myself we have Lost 150# in the Last 3 Years

Benefits of Daily Consuming Immunocal Whey Protein Isolate:

 50 Published Medical Articles Supporting Health Benefit Claims

I started a ‘ Better Blogger Challenge’ this week,

The goal was to create a List Post, with a minimum of

25 of the Most Important Benefits to I had to share with my audience.  

I wanted to share everything till I found out their was over

100,000 articles published on the subject. 

So, after 8 hours of copying and pasting articles,

I felt I had the most important fifty for my list post. 

I also had a huge problem: 

How does one, organize fifty items that are all related to one Topic. 

This turned out to be a massive undertaking,

For the most Researched Food Supplements on the planet. 

I decided To Organize the list by the ways it helps us to stay healthy.

One day I may finish this undertaking and create

“101 Ways to Improve Your Life Daily!”

I don’t know about you but I  have never been one to believe someone that says,

“Trust Me This Works!”.  

..I want proof in Black and White Spelled out for me,

to the end I included all Original Articles for your review.

I have provided the Titles and Chapters Structure in the hope you can

Read the Parts that are Important to your situation.

If you or someone you love is Ill and needs to know about

Benefits for a Specific Medical Problem.

I am not a Doctor but a Retired Chef, that had a

Widow Maker Heart Aaaattack!

At 46 years old and for reasons Modern Medicine

Cannot explain this guy with Three 90% and Two 70 % Blockages

Whose heart is working at 45 % normal function has a Heart Attack

Gets Airlifted to Royal Jubilee Hospital in Victoria BC.

Where  Dr. Leather the Best Plumper (Cardiac Surgeon) in the Province give me Three New Stent that Friday

Then on Monday his Newest trainee puts in the Last stent in one of the 70 % Blockages on the opposite side from where his teacher had done the First Three Sites.

What surprised me the most was their is all this research and

EVEN My Heart Specialist

Had not hear about what in my eyes was the most important

Break thought in Modern Medicine.

Their is a FOOD that you can Eat that Helps Your Body Recover

Be it’s Healthiest Self.

I am in the top ONE Percent in Recovery

60 % Heart Muscle Function at my 13 week Echo Cardiogram.

I was taken off the Warfarin, Blood Thinners at 5 months

Given a clean bill of health.

 This is amazing, Most People that have a Heart Attack

Never have any Increase in Heart Muscle Function.

My Blood Pressure is Low Normal on Both sides

I have a regular heart beat of 60-70 beats a minute all the time.

I still take three Prescriptions Daily with

My Whey Protein Supplement every morning

I Hope my Amazing story of Survival and Recovery

Saves a Life you care about !


1 What it Does for the Body by providing the Building Blocks to create Glutathione “the Master Antioxidant”

1. Promote the Production of GSH

2. Subject on this Whey Protein Exhibit higher levels Glutathione(GSH)

3. Clinically Proven to Raise GSH in several patient groups

4. Enhances Immune Response

5. Five X Higher Immune Response

6. Shows a Larger Dose is Safe

7.  Enhanced Immune Response with larger dose

8. Best Protein Source

9 Improved B- and C-cell Immune Response

10. Anti Aging Benefits

2 How it Helps your Body Fight and Prevent Disease

11. Better Results if Used as a Preventative Treatment

12. Impact on Lifespan in Several Animal Models of Aging

13. Anti Aging Effects

14 Immune Response in the Gastrointestinal Tract

15. Improved Immune Response and Anti Cancer Activity

16. Helps Prevents Breast and Prostate Cancer

3 Proven Benefits to Heart and Lung Health

17. Antioxidant Protection for Pulmonary System

18. Protects the Heart Muscle from Damage

19. Improved Lung Function

20. Reduces Risk of Atherosclerosis in Over Weight and Post Menopausal Women

21. In Ischemic Stroke Victims it Decrease Inflammation and Increase Antioxidant Defenses

22. Protects against Heart Muscle Injury During a Heart Attack

4 Helps with Diabetes and Obesity Risk Factors

23.Helps Type 1 Diabetics w/Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Disease

24. Best Protein Source for Type 2 Diabetes

25. Helps You Feel Full Sooner

26. Helps you Lose Inches and Weight

27. Reduces Body Mass Index Metabolic Syndrome

5 Clinically Proven Cancers Treatment with Chemotherapeutic Benefits

28. Nutrition is Relevant to all aspects of Cancer Treatment

29. Nutrition-Related Therapies

30. Inhibits Cancer Growth

31. Helped Patients Reverse Weight Loss during Lung Cancer Treatments

32. Reduced Tumor Development

33. Helped in Treating Breast Cancer with Chemotherapy

34. Colon Cancer First Study

35. Colon Cancer Second Study

36. Cancer in Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

37. Urogenital Cancers

38. Supports You during Chemotherapy

6 Muscular Performance

39. Supports Immune System and Protects Muscle Mass

40. Enhanced Muscular Performance in Athletes

7 AIDS/HIV/ Auto-Immune Diseases

41. Demonstrates the Anti HIV Activity

42. Improvement of the Nutritional Status of the Patient with Aids and Cancer

43. Maintenance of Body Weight in Aids Patents

44. Helps in HIV Therapy

8 Help and Support for Other Disease States

45. Effective for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

46. Treats Cystic Fibrosis in Young Adults

47. May Benefit Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder

48. Helped Protect the Bp, Spleen and Bone Marrow

49. Improve Muscle Function in Children With C.O.P.D.

50. May be Beneficial in Mitigating Disease Symptoms in ALS


Chapter 1 What it Does for the Body by providing the Building Blocks to create Glutathione “the Master Antioxidant”

1. Promote the Production of GSH (Glutathione)

Whey Protein Concentrate Promotes the Production of Glutathione (GSH) by GSH Reductase in the PC12 Cell Line After Acute Ethanol Exposure.

Tseng YM, Lin SK, Hsiao JK, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Wu SH, Tsai LY.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 81346, Taiwan; Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80702, Taiwan.

Excessive ethanol consumption may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in the damage of tissues, especially the neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the glutathione (GSH) status after acute ethanol exposure in the pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. In this study, we assayed the cell viability, the percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released (% LDH released), the level of GSH, and the activity of GSH reductase (GRx).

The results showed that with the supplement of WPC, the cell viability displayed no significant difference after acute exposure of ethanol in groups with or without ethanol treatment. The ethanol-induced cytotoxicity showed a slight decrease, and the level of GSH showed a significant increase. The activity of GRx significantly increased when 0.1, 10mg/ml of WPC was supplied. In conclusion, these results suggest that WPC in a moderate concentration should be a precursor agent to promote the production of GSH and will enhance the antioxidant capacity in the PC12 cell line.

2. Subject on this Whey Protein Exhibit higher levels Glutathione.

The Biological Activity Of Undenatured Dietary Whey Proteins: Role Of Glutathione

Bounous G., Gold P.
Clin Invest Mod. 1991 Aug;14(4) :296-309 (1991)

This study compared the effects of different sources of whey protein concentrate (20 g/100 g diet) and of casein on the spleen, liver, and heart glutathione content of C3H/HeJ mice, and on the immune response of their spleen cells to sheep red blood cells.  Body weight curves were similar in all dietary groups.  Our data indicate that the humoral immune response is highest in mice fed a dietary whey protein concentrate exhibiting the highest solubility (undenatured conformation) and a greater relative concentration of the thermolabile cystine rich proteins.  In addition, the mice fed this type of whey protein concentrate exhibit higher levels of tissue glutathione.  The presence in the serum albumin fraction of glutamylcysteine groups (rare in food protein) and the specific intramolecular bond as related to the undenatured conformation of the molecule are considered to be key factors in the glutathione-promoting activity of the protein mixture.

3. Clinically Proven to Raise GSH in several patient groups

Open-Labeled Pilot Study of Cysteine-Rich Whey Protein Isolate Supplementation for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Patients

Taned Chitapanarux, Prasong Tienboon, Suwalee Pojchamarnwiputh and Donrawee Leelarungrayub

Background and Aims: Glutathione (GSH) depletion contributes to liver injury and development of steatohepatitis. Undenatured cysteine-rich whey protein isolate has been clinically proven to raise GSH in several patient groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with whey protein on patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Methods: In an open-labeled clinical trial, 38 patients (18 male, 20 female; mean age 48 ± 14 years) with NASH confirmed by computed tomography measurements and liver biochemistries were given with a daily dose of 20g whey protein isolate for 12 weeks.

Results: A significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (64 ± 72 vs 46 ± 36, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (45 ± 49 vs 33 ± 18, P=0.047) were observed. Plasma glutathione and total antioxidant capacity increased significantly at the end of study (53 ± 11 vs 68 ± 11, P< 0.05 and 1.26 ± 0.10 vs 2.03 ± 0.10, P< 0.05). Liver attenuation index improved from -13.4 ± 11.1 to -9.7 ± 13.1 (P = 0.048). Hepatic macrovesicular steatosis decreased significantly after 12 weeks of supplementation (33.82 ± 12.82 vs 30.66 ± 15.96, P=0.046). Whey protein isolate was well tolerated. No serious adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: The results indicate that oral supplementation of cysteine-rich whey protein isolate leads to improvements in liver biochemistries, increased plasma GSH, total antioxidant capacity and reduced hepatic macrovesicular steatosis in NASH patients. The results support the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this disease.

4. Enhances Immune Response

Immuno Enhancing Property Of Dietary Whey Protein In Mice: Role Of Glutathione

Bounous G., Batist G., Gold P.
Clin Invest Med. Jun;12(3) :154-61 (1989)

The spleen cells immune response to sheep red blood cells of C3H/HeJ mice fed a 20 g whey protein/100 g diet is substantially higher than that of mice fed an equivalent casein diet of similar nutritional efficiency.  The present study indicates that the observed immunoenhancing effect of the whey protein mixture is dependent on the overall amino acid pattern resulting from the contribution of all its protein components.  Whey protein contains substantially more cysteine than casein.  Dietary cysteine is considered to be a rate limiting substrate for the synthesis of glutathione which is necessary for lymphocyte proliferation.  Our studies show that enhancement of host humoral immune response is associated with greater and more sustained production of splenic glutathione during the antigen driven clonal expansion of the lymphocyte in whey protein fed mice in comparison to mice fed the equivalent casein or the cysteine-enriched casein diet.  Hence the efficiency of dietary cysteine in inducing supernormal glutathione levels is greater when it is delivered in the whey protein than as free cysteine.  Administration of S-(n-butyl) homocysteine sulfoximine, which reduces splenic glutathione level by half, produces  a 4-5 fold drop in the humoral immune response of whey protein diet-fed mice.  This is further evidence of the important role of glutathione in the immunoenhancing effect of dietary whey protein.

5. Five X Higher Immune Response

Influence Of Dietary Protein Type On The Immune System Of Mice

Bounous G., Letourneau L., Kongshavn P.A.
J Nutr. Jul;113(7) :1415-21 (1983)

The effect of graded amounts of dietary lactalbumin (L), casein (C), soy (S), wheat (W) protein and Purina rodent chow (stock diet) on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the specific humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and horse red blood cells (HRBC) as well as the nonspecific splenic cell responsiveness to phyto-hemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) after stimulation with Myco-bacterium bovis, strain BCG.  The nutritional efficiency of these diets was normal and similar.  The immune response of mice fed the L diets, was found to be almost five times higher than that of mice fed the corresponding C diets.  The humoral immune response of mice fed C, S, and W diets was substantially lower than that of mice fed stock diet, whereas that of mice fed L diet was higher.  The above-described immune effect of all tested proteins was obtained at 20 g/100 g concentration with no further increments with 30- and 40 g/100 g protein in the diet.  Mitogen responsiveness to PHA and Con A in L diet-fed mice was only slightly higher than that of C diet-fed mice.  Little difference in immune responses was noted among mice fed C, S or W protein diets.  The principal factor responsible for the observed immune effect does not appear to be the availability or concentration of single essential amino acids but rather the composite effect of the specific amino acid distribution in the protein.


6. Shows a Larger Dose is Safe

Influence Of Dietary Lactalbumin Hydrolysate On The Immune System Of Mice And Resistance To Salmonellosis

Bounous G., Stevenson M.M., Kongshavn P.A.
J Infect Dis. Sep; 144(3) :281. (1981)

In the present study we investigated the effect of four weeks of treatment with a diet containing lactalbumin hydrolysate (LAH: Nestlé, Vevey, Switzerland) on the immune response of C3H/HeN mice.  Our data indicate that it was possible to increase the level of this type of protein in the diet above the minimum requirement (12% LAH) and thus produce augmented humoral immune responsiveness and resistance to salmonellosis.
Lactalbumin = Whey Protein Concentrate

7.  Enhanced Immune Response with larger dose

Influence Of Dietary Proteins On The Immune System Of Mice

Bounous G., Kongshavn P.A.
J Nutr.Sep; 112(9) :1747-55 (1982)

The effect of graded amounts of dietary laetalbumin (L) and casein (C) hydrolyzates on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN and DBA/2 strain mice has been investigated by measuring both the specific humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the nonspecific splenic cell responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide after stimulation with Mycobacteriurn bovis, strain BCG. The nutritional efficiency of these diets was similar at both 12 and 28% amino acid levels. The immune responses of mice fed the L diets were found to be significantly greater than those of mice fed the corresponding C diets, especially at the 28% level. Furthermore in the mice fed L diet, increasing the concentration of amino acid in the diet from  by both parameters measured. In the C-fed mice, a comparable enhancement of mitogen responsiveness with increasing amino acid level of diet was seen, but there was no change in the humoral immune response. The enhancement of immune responsiveness observed in mice fed the 28% L diet was moderately reduced by the addition of phenylalanine to the diet, indicating that the lower level of this amino acid in the L protein may be of some significance. These dietary effects on immune responsiveness were remarkably similar in both mouse strains tested.

8. Best Protein Source

The Immunoenhancing Property Of Dietary Whey Protein Concentrate

Bounous G., Kongshavn P.A., Gold P.
Clin Invest Med.Aug;11(4) :271-8 (1988)

The plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells was found to be enhanced in mice fed a formula diet containing 20 g lactalbumin /100 g diet in comparison to mice fed equivalent formula diets of similar nutritional efficiency containing 20 g / 100 g diet of either casein, soy, wheat or corn protein, egg albumin, beef or fish protein, Spirulina maxima, or Scenedesmus protein, or Purina mouse chow. This effect was manifest after 2 weeks and persisted for at least 8 weeks of dietary treatment. Mixing lactalbumin with either casein or soy protein in a 20 g protein / 100 g diet formula significantly enhanced the immune response in comparison to that of mice fed diets containing 20% soy protein or casein.

9. Improved B- and C-cell Immune Response

Differential Effect Of Dietary Protein Type On The B-Cell And T-Cell Immune Responses In Mice

Bounous G., Kongshavn P.A.
J Nutr. Nov;115(11) :1403-8 (1985)

The effect of 20 g/100 g diet of lactalbumin (L), casein (C), soy (S) and wheat (W) protein on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the humoral immune response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll.  The humoral immune response of mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C, S and W diets.  On the other hand, delayed-type hypersensitivity, and splenic cell mitogen responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A did not differ among mice fed the various diets.  Similarly, the type of diet did not appear to influence host resistance to Salmonella typhymurium.  It is postulated that the type of protein in the diet influences directly the intrinsic capacity of the B lymphocytes to respond to an immunogenic stimulus.

10. Anti Aging Benefits

The Influence Of Dietary Whey Protein On Tissue Glutathione And The Diseases Of Aging

Bounous G., Gervais F., Amer V., Batist G., Gold P.
Clin Invest Med.Dec;12(6) :343-9 (1989)

This study compared the effects of a whey-rich diet (20 g / 100 g diet), with that of Purina mouse chow or casein-rich diet (20 g / 100 g diet), on the liver and heart glutathione content and on the survival of old male C57BL / 6 NIA mice.  The study was performed during a limited observation period of 6.3 months.  In mice fed the whey protein-rich diet between 17 months and 20 months of age, the heart tissue and liver tissue glutathione content were enhanced above the corresponding values of the casein diet-fed and Purina-fed mice.  Mice fed the whey protein diet at the onset of senescence, exhibited increased longevity as compared to mice fed Purina mouse chow over the 6.3 month observation period extending from the age of 21 months (corresponding to a human age of 55 years) to 26-27 months of age (corresponding to a human age of 80 years), during which time 55% mortality was observed.  The corresponding mean survival time of mice fed the defined casein diet is almost identical to that of Purina-fed controls.  Body weight curves were similar in all three dietary groups.  Hence, a whey protein diet appears to enhance the liver and heart glutathione concentration in aging mice and to increase longevity over a 6.3 month observation period.

Chapter 2 How it Helps your Body Fight and Prevent Disease

11. Better Results if Used as a Preventative Treatment

Effects of Alcohol-Induced Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) Pretreated Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) on Oxidative Damage.

Tseng YM, Chen SY, Chen CH, Jin YR, Tsai SM, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Chiu CC, Tsai LY.
Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Excessive alcohol consumption can induce apoptosis in a variety of tissues and influence the antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This paper investigates the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) pretreated in PBMC on the apoptosis and antioxidant status after the treatment of alcohol. The results show that the percentages of apoptotic cells in the alcohol-treated group were higher than those in the group without alcohol treatment. Additionally, there was higher glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx) activity when the PBMC were treated with 300 mg/dL of alcohol. With regards to the activity of GSH reductase (GRx), there was higher activity in the group pretreated with WPC than in the group with the treatment of alcohol only. On the contrary, the levels of GSH were reduced after the treatment of alcohol, but there was a higher level of GSH in the group pretreated with WPC. In this study, it was found that the increased level of GSH in PBMC might not be attributed to the effect of GRx because there was still a higher level of GSH in the group with the treatment of WPC and BCNU (a GRx inhibitor) in this study. The results indicated that PBMC pretreated with WPC might ameliorate alcohol-induced effects such as imbalance of the antioxidant status.

12. Impact on Lifespan in Several Animal Models of Aging

Aberrant Insulin Receptor Signaling and Amino Acid Homeostasis as a Major Cause of Oxidative Stress in Aging

Dröge W., KIincherf R.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Vol. 10, No. 4, - 1953, 2008.

The mechanisms leading to the increase in free radical-derived oxidative stress in “normal aging” remains obscure. Here we present our perspective on studies from different fields that reveal a previously unnoticed vicious cycle of oxidative stress. The plasma cysteine concentrations during starvation in the night and early morning hours (the postabsorptive state) decreases with age. This decrease is associated with a decrease in tissue concentrations of the cysteine derivative and quantitatively important antioxidant glutathione. The decrease in cysteine reflects changes in the autophagic protein catabolism that normally ensures free amino acid homeostasis during starvation. Autophagy is negatively regulated by the insulin receptor signaling cascade that is enhanced by oxidative stress in the absence of insulin. This synopsis of seemingly unrelated processes reveals a novel mechanism of progressive oxidative stress in which decreasing antioxidant concentrations and increasing basal (postabsorptive) insulin receptor signaling activity compromise not only the autophagic protein catabolism but also the activity of FOXO transcription factors (i.e., two functions that were found to have an impact on lifespan in several animal models of aging). In addition, the aging-related decrease in glutathione levels is likely to facilitate certain “secondary” disease-related mechanisms of oxidative stress. Studies on cysteine supplementation show therapeutic promise.

13. Anti Aging Effects

Oxidative stress and ageing: is ageing a cysteine deficiency syndrome?

Dröge, Wulf.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. Vol. 360, pp 2355-2372. 2005.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in biological tissues and play a role in various signaling pathways.  Abnormally high ROS concentrations cause oxidative stress associated with tissue damage and dysregulation of physiological signals.  There is growing evidence that oxidative stress increases with age.  It has also been shown that the life span of worms, flies and mice can be significantly increased by mutations, which impede the insulin receptor signaling cascade.  Molecular studies revealed that the insulin-independent basal activity of the insulin receptor is increased by ROS and downregulated by certain antioxidants.  Complementary clinical studies confirmed that supplementation of the glutathione precursor cysteine decreases insulin responsiveness in the fasted state.  In several clinical trials, cysteine supplementation improved skeletal muscle functions, decreased the body fat/lean body mass ratio, decreased plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a), improved immune functions, and increased plasma albumin levels.  As all these parameters degenerated with age, these findings suggest: (i) that loss of youth, health and quality of life may be partly explained by a deficit in cysteine and (ii) that the dietary consumption of cysteine is generally suboptimal and everybody is likely to have a cysteine deficiency sooner or later.


14. Immune Response in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Changes in biliary secretory immunoglobulins A in mice fed whey proteins

Costantino A.M., Balzola F., Bounous G.
Minerva Dietol Gastroenterol 35(4): 241-5 (1989)

A whey protein diet has been shown to enhance splenic immune response to sheep red blood cells (SBRC) in mice.  This study was designed to investigate the influence of the type of dietary protein on the biliary secretory IgA.  A/J mice were fed defined formula diets containing either 20% whey protein, or 20% casein.  Another group was fed Purina mouse chow.  After 3 weeks of dietary treatment the body weight of each mouse was recorded and the gall-bladder was removed and its whole content analyzed by ELISA to determine S-IgA secretion.  Body weight curves were similar in all dietary groups; higher biliary levels of S-IgA appeared in the whey protein fed mice than in the casein (p less than 0.025) or purine (p less than 0.025) fed mice.  Dietary protein type may have a , without affecting body weight.

15. Improved Immune Response and Anti Cancer Activity

The Antioxidant System

Bounous G., Molson J.
Anticancer Research 23: 1411-1416 (2003)

The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is the principal protective mechanism of the cell and is a crucial factor in the development of the immune response by the immune cells.  Experimental data demonstrate that a cysteine-rich whey protein concentrate represents an effective cysteine delivery system for GSH replenishment during the immune response.  Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey protein also exhibit anticancer activity. They do this via the GSH pathway, the induction of p53 protein in transformed cells and inhibition of neoangiogenesis.

16. Helps Prevents Breast and Prostate Cancer

Molecular Pathogenesis and Prevention of Prostate Cancer

Bounous G., Beer D.
Anticancer Research 24: 553-554 (2004)

Studies in laboratory animals indicate inhibition of chemically-induced carcinoma by cystine-rich diets enhancing the cysteine-GSH antioxidant system. The progression of carcinoma of the prostate is also inhibited by these diets, which were later found to raise the level of GSH in the prostate epithelium of man. New data presented at the July 13, 2003 meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research indicates that higher levels of total cysteine in plasma may predict a reduced risk for breast cancer. This prospective investigation was conducted among 32,000 women in the Nurses Health study. The previously reported prostate cancer data appears then not to be strictly gender-related as the antioxidant role of the cysteine – GSH system may also apply to breast cancer prevention.

Chapter 3 Proven Benefits to Heart and Lung Health


17. Antioxidant Protection for Pulmonary System

Treatment Of Obstructive Airway Disease With A Cysteine Donor Protein Supplement Report

Lothian B., Grey V, Kimoff R.J., Lands L.C.
Chest. Mar;117(3) :914-6 (2000)

Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can occur in obstructive airways disease as a result of ongoing inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) plays a major role in pulmonary antioxidant protection. As an alternative or complement to anti-inflammatory therapy, augmenting antioxidant protection could diminish the effects of inflammation. We describe a case of a patient who had obstructive lung disease responsive to corticosteroids, and low whole blood GSH levels. After 1 month of supplementation with a whey-based oral supplement designed to provide GSH precursors, whole blood GSH levels and pulmonary function increased significantly and dramatically. The potential for such supplementation in pulmonary inflammatory conditions deserves further study.

18. Protects the Heart Muscle from Damage

Milk Whey Protein decreases Oxygen Free Radical Production in a Murine Model of Chronic Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy

Bartfay WJ, Davis MT, Medves JM, Lugowski S
Can J. Cardiol Vol 19 No 10, Sept. 03: 1163-1168 (2003)

Background: Chronic iron overload is a major cause of organ failure worldwide, but its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated.

Objectives: To examine in an experimental murine model of iron-overload cardiomyopathy the relation between milk whey protein and, first, the production of reactive oxygen free radical species and, second, antioxidant reserve status. METHODS: B6D2F1 mice were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n=8 per treatment group): placebo control; iron only; whey only; and iron with whey. Reactive oxygen free radical species in the heart were quantified by the cytotoxic aldehydes malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE) and hexanal, while antioxidant reserve status was quantified by glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the heart tissue.

Results: Significantly decreased concentrations (pmol/100 mg wet weight tissue) of MDA (2468+/-261), HNE (912+/-38) and hexanal (5385+/-927) were observed in the heart tissue of the group receiving iron with whey, in comparison with the iron-only treatment group (MDA 9307+/-387, HNE 1416+/-157, hexanal 14,874+/-2955; P<0.001). Significantly increased GPx (141+/-38 IU/L) and GSH (521+/-136 IU/L) activity were observed in mice receiving iron with whey, in comparison with mice receiving iron only (GPx 100+/-10 IU/L, GSH 446+/-33 IU/L; P<0.001).

Conclusion: Mice receiving iron treatments with whey supplementation had significantly lower concentrations of cytotoxic aldehydes and significantly higher cardiac levels of GPx and GSH activity than did iron-only treated mice. Additional basic research is warranted to examine the exact mechanisms by which milk whey protein protects the heart.

19. Improved Lung Function

Effects of Cysteine Donor Supplement on Exercise-Induced Broncho Constriction

Baumann JM, Runell KW, Evlans TM, Levine AM.
Med.Sci.Sports Exerc.,Vol. 37, No. 9, pp1468-1473. 2005.

Purpose: Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in resident airway cells may be important in broncho constriction following exercise. Glutathione (GSH) is a major lung antioxidant and could influence pathological outcomes in individuals with exercise-induced broncho constriction (EIB). This study examined the effects of supplementation with undenatured whey protein (UWP) in subjects exhibiting airway narrowing following eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH), a surrogate challenge for diagnosis of EIB. UWP is a cysteine donor that augments GSH production.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 18 EIB-positive subjects (age: 25.2 +/- 9.01 yr; weight: 77.3 +/- 18.92 kg; height: 1.7 +/- 0.09 m) with post-EVH falls of > or =10% in FEV1 received 30 g UWP (TX) or casein placebo (PL)/d. Subjects performed 6‑min EVH challenges before and after 4 and 8 wk of supplementation. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) was measured serially before spirometry and at 1-wk intervals. Spirometry was performed pre- and 5, 10, and 15 min postchallenge.

Results: Subjects exhibited significant mean improvement in postchallenge falls in FEV(1) from 0 wk (-22.6 +/- 12.22%) with TX at 4 (-18.9 +/- 12.89%, P < 0.05) and 8 wk (-16.98 +/- 11.61%, P < 0.05) and significant mean reduction in post-EVH peak falls in FEF(25-75) from 0 wk (-40.6 +/- 15.28%) with TX at 4 (-33.1 +/- 17.11%, P < 0.01) and 8 (-29.7 +/- 17.42%, P < 0.05) wk. No changes in FEV(1) or FEF(25-75) were observed in the PL group at any time point. Mean eNO for PL and TX groups at 0, 4, and 8 wk (46.8 +/- 31.33, 46.5 +/- 35.73, 49.3 +/- 37.12 vs 35.2 +/- 26.87, 29.1 +/- 17.26, 34.7 +/- 21.11 ppb, respectively) was not significantly different.

Conclusions: UWP may augment pulmonary antioxidant capacity and be therapeutically beneficial in individuals exhibiting EIB, as postchallenge pulmonary function improved with supplementation. The lack of significant change in eNO suggests that the pulmonary function improvements from UWP supplementation are independent of eNO.

20. Reduces Risk of Atherosclerosis in Over Weight and Post Menopausal Women
Atherosclerosis. 2010 Sep;212(1):339-44. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.05.032. Epub 2010 May 31.

Acute effects of whey protein isolate on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight, post-menopausal women.


School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, ATN Centre for Metabolic Fitness, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.



The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of dietary whey proteins on lipids, glucose and insulin, and resting energy expenditure in overweight and obese post-menopausal women, a population highly susceptible to cardiovascular disease.


A three-way crossover design study was conducted where 20 overweight or obese, post-menopausal women were randomised to consume either 45 g whey protein isolate, 45 g sodium caseinate or 45 g of a glucose control in conjunction with a breakfast meal. Blood samples were taken for up to 6 h.


There was no significant change in postprandial incremental area under the curve (AUC) for total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, non-esterified fatty acids, Apo B48, insulin and leptin between groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the appearance of triglycerides (TG) in the blood by 21% and 27% after consuming the whey meal compared to control and casein meals, respectively, as measured by AUC. There was also a significant reduction by 27% and 32% in the AUC for TG:ApoB48 ratio in the whey group compared to the glucose and casein groups, respectively. There was a significantly lower AUC for blood glucose after the consumption of the whey and casein meal compared to glucose meal.


These findings suggest that a single dose of whey protein can decrease arterial exposure to smaller TG-enriched lipoprotein particles compared to the glucose and casein meals in the postprandial period in overweight and obese, post-menopausal women.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 20561625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


21. Ischemic Stroke may Decrease Inflammation and Increase Antioxidant Defenses

Nutrition. 2011 Apr;27(4):440-4. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.02.013. Epub 2010 Dec 16.

Early enteral nutrition with whey protein or casein in elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind randomized trial.


Department of Surgery, Medical Sciences School, The Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, Brazil.

Erratum in

  • Nutrition. 2011 Sept;27(9):982.



The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an early enteral formula containing whey protein, in comparison to a standard enteral formula containing casein as the protein source, on the levels of glutathione and inflammatory markers in aged patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Thirty-one elderly patients (12 males and 19 females; median age = 74 [range,65-90] y old) with ischemic stroke were randomized to receive early nasogastric feeding (35 kcal/kg/d and 1.2 g of protein/kg/d) with either a formula containing polymeric [corrected] casein (casein group, n =16) or another isocaloric and isonitrogenous formula containing hydrolyzed whey protein (WP group, n = 15) for 5 d. The primary endpoints of the study were the changes in the serum levels of glutathione peroxidase, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6).


Twenty-five patients completed the study (10 in the WP group and 15 in the casein group). Mortality was similar between groups (33%; P = 1.00) and was associated with higher serum IL-6 (73.7 ± 24.7 versus 16.6 ± 2.4 pg/dL; P = 0.04) and CRP (82.0 ± 35.6 versus 48.3 ± 14.5 mg/L; P = 0.02) levels. Albumin levels dropped from the first to the fifth feeding day only in the casein group (P < 0.01). Serum IL-6 decreased (62.7 ± 47.2 to 20.6 ± 10.3 pg/dL; P = 0.02) and glutathione increased (32.2 ± 2.1 to 39.9 ± 6.8 U/G Hb; P = 0.03) only in the WP group. Serum IL-6 was lower (P = 0.03) and glutathione was higher (P = 0.03) in whey protein-fed patients than in the casein group.


Enteral formula containing whey protein may decrease inflammation and increase antioxidant defenses in elderly patients with ischemic stroke, compared to casein-containing formula.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 21167685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
22. Protects against Heart Muscle Injury During a Heart Attack
J Surg Res. 2013 Jan 8. pii: S0022-4804(12)01967-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2012.12.029. [Epub ahead of print]

Acidic infusion in early reperfusion affects the activity of antioxidant enzymes in postischemic isolated rat heart.


Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Orbassano, Italy;

Istituto Nazionale per le Ricerche Cardiovascolari, Bologna, Italy.



Acidic perfusion (AP) performed at the onset of reperfusion (i.e., acid postconditioning) is cardioprotective. We investigated the effect of AP on postischemic cardiac function and on the activity of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase. The role of exogenous CAT or SOD on AP cardioprotection was also investigated. Phosphorylation of redox-sensitive survival kinases (protein kinase C [PKC] ε and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] 1/2) was also checked.


Isolated rat hearts underwent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) for 30 and 120 min, respectively. AP was obtained by lowering [HCO(3)(-)] in the perfusion buffer. Infarct size and left ventricular pressure were measured. Protocols include I/R only, I/R plus acidic perfusion in early reperfusion (I/R + AP), and I/R plus AP and CAT (I/R + AP + CAT) or SOD (I/R + AP + SOD). I/R + SOD and I/R + CAT additional hearts served as controls. AP and/or antioxidants were given in the initial 3 min of reperfusion. Enzyme activities were studied in postischemic phase (seventh minute of reperfusion) in I/R or I/R + AP and Sham (buffer-perfused) hearts.


AP with (I/R + AP + CAT or I/R + AP + SOD) or without (I/R + AP) antioxidant enzymes resulted in a larger reduction of infarct size compared with I/R, I/R + SOD, or I/R + CAT. Compared with I/R, the postischemic systolic and diastolic recoveries of the cardiac function were markedly improved by the addition of AP and a lesser extent by AP + SOD or AP + CAT. AP increased the postischemic activity of CAT and lowered that of SOD and glutathione peroxidase compared with I/R only. Also, the phosphorylation and activity of ERK1/2 and PKCε were increased by AP.


Acid postconditioning affects the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, activates ERK1/2-PKCε pathways, and protects against myocardial I/R injury. The combination of AP and exogenous SOD or CAT still provides cardioprotection. It is likely that intracellular (not extracellular) redox condition plays a pivotal role in acidic protection.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 23333069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Chapter 4 Helps with Diabetes and Obesity Risk Factors


23. Helps Type 1 Diabetics with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Disease

Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010 Jan;94(1):134-9.

[Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in type-1 diabetes mellitus].

[Article in Portuguese]


Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. leo.cavadas@


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex disorder represented by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors related to central fat distribution and insulin resistance (IR), and is associated with early mortality in non-diabetic individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The presence of MS and its components has also been described in patients with type-1 DM and may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease seen in this patient population. The objective of this study was to review the available evidences of the role of MS and IR in the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type-1 DM.

PMID: 20414537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE


24. Best Protein Source for Type 2 Diabetes

Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):41-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27281. Epub 2009 May 20.

Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein.


Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.



Enhanced and prolonged postprandial triglyceride responses involve increased cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat and carbohydrates profoundly influence postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, whereas little information exists on the effect of proteins.


The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes.


A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.


The incremental area under the curve for triglyceride was significantly lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals. The RP response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the Cas-meal and Cod-meal in the chylomicron-rich fraction and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses.


The data suggest that as a supplement to a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes, whey protein seems to outperform other proteins in terms of postprandial lipemia improvement, possibly because of the formation of fewer chylomicrons or increased clearance of chylomicrons. The trial was registered at as NCT00817973.

PMID: 19458012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


25. Helps You Feel Full Sooner

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Dec;26(6):704S-12S.

Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.


Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Rm 329, FitzGerald Building, 150 College St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.

PMID: 18187437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
26. Helps you Lose Inches and Weight
J Nutr. 2011 Aug;141(8):1489-94. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.139840. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults.


Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.


A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of supplemental whey protein (WP), soy protein (SP), and an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate (CHO) on body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants. Ninety overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for 23 wk: 1) WP; 2) SP (each providing ~56 g/d of protein and 1670 kJ/d); or 3) an isoenergetic amount of CHO. Supplements were consumed as a beverage twice daily. Participants were provided no dietary advice and continued to consume their free-choice diets. Participants’ body weight and composition data were obtained monthly. Dietary intake was determined by 24-h dietary recalls collected every 10 d. After 23 wk, body weight and composition did not differ between the groups consuming the SP and WP or between SP and CHO; however, body weight and fat mass of the group consuming the WP were lower by 1.8 kg (P < 0.006) and 2.3 kg (P < 0.005), respectively, than the group consuming CHO. Lean body mass did not differ among any of the groups. Waist circumference was smaller in the participants consuming WP than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Fasting ghrelin was lower in participants consuming WP compared with SP or CHO. Through yet-unknown mechanisms, different sources of dietary protein may differentially facilitate weight loss and affect body composition. Dietary recommendations, especially those that emphasize the role of dietary protein in facilitating weight change, should also address the demonstrated clinical potential of supplemental WP.

PMID: 21677076 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3145217


27. Reduces Body Mass Index Metabolic Syndrome

Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2010 Feb 10;2:13. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-2-13.

Short-term nutritional counseling reduces body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold and triglycerides in women with metabolic syndrome.

Source Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo/SP, Brazil.



It is recognized that the growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome is related to dietary and lifestyle changes.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term application of nutritional counseling in women with metabolic syndrome.


This follow-up study was conducted from September to November 2008 with thirty three women > or =35 years old screened clinically for nutritional counseling. Dietary intake was reported, and biochemical and body composition measures were taken at baseline and after three months of follow-up.


Of the 33 women evaluated, 29 patients completed the study. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity was high at 38%, 72.4%, 55.2%, and 75.8%, respectively. At the end of three-months of follow-up, a significant decline in body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and triglycerides was observed, as was an increase in calcium and vitamin D intake. The multiple regression analysis showed that changes in body mass index, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and triglyceride levels after nutritional intervention were positively associated with changes in anthropometric (loss of body weight) and biochemical (decrease of TG/HDL-c ratio) parameters. Moreover, waist circumference changes were negatively associated with changes in calcium and vitamin D intake.


Short-term nutritional counseling improved some factors of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the increases in calcium and vitamin D consumption can be associated with the improvement in markers of metabolic syndrome.


Chapter 5 Clinically Proven Cancers Treatment with Chemotherapeutic Benefits

28. Nutrition is Relevant to all aspects of Cancer Treatment

Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Nutrition Committee

Paul C. Rogers, MB ChB, MBA, Steven J. Melnick, MD, PhD, Elena J. Ladas, MS, Jacqueline Hamilton, MD, Jacques Baillargeon, PhD, and Nancy Sacks, MS
PEDIATR BLOOD CANCER, 50:447-450 (2008)

Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Nutrition Committee was established to further the knowledge of nutrition in children with cancer by education and conduct of clinical trials. A survey of COG institutions revealed lack of conformity in evaluation and categorization of nutritional status, and criteria for nutritional intervention. The Committee subsequently established specific categories of malnutrition (Underweight and Overweight) based on ideal body weight or body mass index. An algorithm was developed as a guideline for nutritional intervention as well as references and resources for determining estimated needs. The Committee embarked on concepts for clinical trials of nutritional interventions. The first pilot study, evaluating the feasibility of using an immunoneutraceutical precursor for glutathione production, has been completed. The study showed weight gain and improvement in glutathione status. A pilot trial of proactive enteral feeding for patients at high risk of malnutrition has commenced. The Committee believes that nutrition is relevant to all aspects of cancer control. The paucity of nutritional investigation in children with cancer needs to be rectified. Key words: cancer, children; nutrition.


29. Nutrition-Related Therapies

 Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Feb;50(2 Suppl):490-3; discussion 498.


Bringing evidence to complementary and alternative medicine in children with cancer: Focus on nutrition-related therapies.

Kelly KM.


Division of Pediatric Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.


Children with cancer frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), especially in conjunction with conventional therapy. Dietary supplements are a commonly used CAM modality, with the prevalence of supplement use ranging from 35% to 50% of children with cancer in surveys completed in the United States. Less is known about the use of dietary supplements in developing countries. The evidence for some dietary supplements providing some benefit to children with cancer is reviewed. Preliminary studies have shown that antioxidant status may affect chemotherapy tolerance in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Other supplements, including Traumel s, glutamine, vitamin E, Immunocal, colostrum, and Probiotics, may help to reduce gastrointestinal toxicities of chemotherapy and radiation. However, more definitive evidence is needed. Most dietary supplements have not been tested adequately to determine their safety and efficacy, with even less understood about their potential interactions with conventional chemotherapy and radiation. With the greater use of dietary supplements by patients with cancer, increasing scientific attention is being paid to the investigation of these therapies. But research on dietary supplements is complex and usually more difficult than that on conventional medications. Strong research designs are critical in obtaining information that will ultimately influence clinical practice and public awareness.

11525598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

30. Inhibits Cancer Growth

In Vitro Selective Modulation of Cellular Glutathione by a Humanized Native Milk Protein Isolate in Normal Cells and Rat Mammary Carcinoma Model

Sylvain Baruchel & Ginette Viau
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 16:1095-1100 (1996)

We report the in vitro selective inhibitory activity of a humanized whey protein concentrate IMMUNOCAL on growth of mammary carcinoma cells and Jurkat T cells in comparison to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We related this inhibitory activity to a selective depletion of intracellular glutathione synthesis. The use of humanized whey protein concentrate as a food supplementation may have direct implication in clinical trials with adjuvant chemotherapy.

Glutathione (GSH) accounts for more than 90% of total intracellular non-protein sulfhydryl and is critical in a variety of cellular defense functions including protection from toxic oxygen species and detoxification of various xenobiotics. Tumor cell GSH concentration may be among the determinant of the cytotoxicity of many chemotherapeutic agents and of radiation, and an increase in GSH concentration appears to be at least one of the mechanisms of acquired drug resistance to chemotherapy.

Therapeutic elevation of normal cell GSH levels has also been investigated as a means to reduce the toxicity associated with a wide variety of compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin.

GSH may be increased by different methods including delivery of L-Cystine, a rare limiting amino acid in GSH synthesis. This is difficult since cysteine is toxic, it is not transported efficiently into cells, and is oxidized spontaneously at neutral pH.

Attempts to cancer treatment based on modulation of GSH concentration in tumor cells must take into consideration the glutathione status and the rate of GSH synthesis in these cells. It is well known that rapid GSH synthesis in tumor cells is associated with high rates of cellular proliferation. Depletion of tumor GSH in vivo decreases the rate of cellular proliferation and inhibits cancer growth. In practice it is difficult to reduce GSH sufficiently in a tumor in vivo without placing the normal tissue at risk.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that GSH can be differently manipulated in normal versus tumor cell line. Dependent upon the method of GSH manipulation protection could be demonstrated in normal but not in tumor cell line.

In this report we demonstrate that it is possible to selectively modulate in vivo GSH synthesis in normal cells compared to cancer cells with a humanized Whey Protein Concentrate (HWPC) and that this selective GSH modulation has an impact on cells proliferation.

31. Helped Patients Reverse Weight Loss during Lung Cancer Treatments

Cysteine-Rich Protein Reverses Weight Loss in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy

Tozer R., Tai P., Falconer W., Ducruet T., Karabadjian A., Bounous G., Molson JH., Dröge W.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Vol. 10, No. 2, 395-402, 2008.

Oxidative stress plays a role in the tumor-cytotoxic effect of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy and also in certain adverse events. In view of these conflicting aspects, a double-blind trial over 6 months has been performed to determine whether a cysteine-rich protein (IMN1207) may have a positive or negative effect on the clinical outcome if compared with casein, a widely used protein supplement low in cysteine. Sixty-six patients with Stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to IMN1207 or casein. Included were patients with a previous involuntary weight loss of ≥3%, Karnofsky status ≥70, and an estimated survival of > 3 months. Thirty-five lung cancer patients remained on study at six weeks. Overall compliance was not different between treatment arms (42-44% or 13g/day). The patients treated with the cysteine-rich protein had a mean increase of 2.5% body weight while casein-treated patients lost 2.6% (P=0.049). Differences in secondary end points included an increase in survival, hand grip force and quality of life. Adverse events were mild or moderate. Further studies will have to show whether the positive clinical effects can be confirmed and related to specific parameters of oxidative stress in the host.

32. Reduced Tumor Development

Whey Proteins In Cancer Prevention

Bounous G., Batist G., Gold P.
Cancer Lett. 1991 May 1;57(2) :91-4. Review. (1991)

Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary milk products may exert an inhibitory effect on the development of several types of tumors.  Some recent experiments in rodents indicate that the antitumor activity of the dairy products is in the protein fraction and more specifically in the whey protein component of milk.  We and others have demonstrated that whey protein diets result in increased glutathione (GSH) concentration in a number of tissues, and that some of the beneficial effects of whey protein intake are abrogated by inhibition of GSH synthesis.  Whey protein is particularly rich in substrates for GSH synthesis.  We suggest that whey protein may be exerting its effect on carcinogenesis by enhancing GSH concentration.

33. Helped in Treating Breast Cancer with Chemotherapy

The Use Of A Whey Protein Concentrate In The Treatment Of Patients With Metastatic Carcinoma : A Phase I-II Clinical Study

Kennedy R.S., Konok G.P., Bounous G., Baruchel S., Lee T.D.
Anticancer Res. Nov-Dec;15(6B) :2643-9 (1995)

Glutathione (GSH) concentration is high in most tumor cells and this may be an important factor in resistance to chemotherapy.  Previous in-vitro and animal experiments have shown a differential response of tumor versus normal cells to various cysteine delivery systems.  More specifically, an in-vitro assay showed that at concentrations that induce GSH synthesis in normal human cells, a specially prepared whey protein concentrate, Immunocal, caused GSH depletion and inhibition of proliferation in human breast cancer cells.  On the basis of this information five patients with metastatic carcinoma of the breast, one of the pancreas and one of the liver were fed 30 grams of this whey protein concentrate daily for six months.  In six patients the blood lymphocyte GSH levels were substantially above normal at the outset, reflecting high tumor GSH levels.  Two patients (#1, #3) exhibited signs of tumor regression, normalization of haemoglobin and peripheral lymphocyte counts and a sustained drop of lymphocyte GSH levels towards normal.  Two patients (#2, #7) showed stabilization of the tumor, increased haemoglobin levels.  In three patients (#4, #5, #6) the disease progressed with a trend toward higher lymphocyte GSH levels.  These results indicate that whey protein concentrate might deplete tumor cells of GSH and render than more vulnerable to chemotherapy.


 34. Colon Cancer First Study

Dietary Whey Protein Inhibits The Development Of Dimethylhydrazine Induced Malignancy

Bounous G., Papenburg R., Kongshavn P.A., Gold P., Fleiszer D.
Clin Invest Med. Jun;11(3) :213-7 (1988)

This study investigates the influence of two formula diets containing 20 g/100 g diet of either whey protein concentrate or casein or Purina mouse chow, on the humoral immune responsiveness and dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in A/J mice.  After 20 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment, the number of plaque forming cells per spleen, following intravenous inoculation with 5 x 106 sheep red blood cells, was nearly three times greater in the whey protein-fed group than in the casein-fed mice although both values were substantially below normal.  After 24 weeks of dimethylhydrazine treatment the incidence of tumors in the whey protein-fed mice was substantially lower than that in mice fed either the casein or Purina diet.  Similarly, the tumor area was less in the whey protein group in comparison to either the casein or Purina groups, with some difference between casein and Purina groups.  Body weight curves were similar in all dietary groups. In conclusion, a whey protein diet appears to significantly inhibit the incidence and growth of chemically induced colon tumors in mice.

35. Colon Cancer Second Study

Dietary Milk Proteins Inhibit The Development Of Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Malignancy

Papenburg R., Bounous G., Fleiszer D., Gold P.
Tumour Biol.11(3) :129-36 (1990)

This study investigated the influence of two formula diets containing 20 g/100 g diet of either whey protein concentrate or casein, or Purina mouse chow on 1,2dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinoma in A/J mice.  Four weeks after the 24th DMH treatment the incidence of tumour and tumour area in the whey protein-fed mice was substantially less in comparison to either the casein or Purina groups.  The Purina group exhibited the greatest tumour burden.  At the end of the experiment all animals continuously fed the whey protein diet were found to be alive, whereas 33% of those on the casein or Purina diet had died.  Animals fed Purina diet for 20 weeks and then switched to either milk protein diet for a further 8 weeks exhibited a decrease in tumour burden as compared to those animals fed the Purina diet continuously.  Body weights were similar in all dietary groups.  In conclusion, a whey protein diet appears to significantly influence the development of chemically induced colon tumours and the short-term survival of mice.

36. Cancer in Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

Mechanism Of Altered B-Cell Response Induced By Changes In Dietary Protein Type In Mice

Bounous G., Shenouda N., Kongshavn P.A., Osmond D.G.
J Nutr. Nov;115(11) :1409-17 (1985)

The effect of 20 g/100 g dietary lactalbumin (L) or casein (C) diets or a nonpurified (NP) diet on the immune responsiveness of C57B1/6J, C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll.  To investigate the possible influence of dietary protein type on the supply of B lymphocytes, bone marrow lymphocyte production has been examined by a radioautographic assay of small lymphocyte renewal and an immuno-fluorescent stathmokinetic assay of pre-B cells and their proliferation.  The humoral response of all mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C diet or non purified diet.  A similar pattern of dietary protein effect in (CBA/N x DBA/2J) F1 mice carrying the xid defect was observed following challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC).  An even greater enhancing effect of dietary L was noted in normal (DBA/2J x CBA/N) F1 mice after immunization with SRBC, but in contrast, the normal large-scale production of B lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow was independent of the type of dietary protein.  Dietary protein type did not affect blood level of minerals and trace metals.  The free plasma amino acid profile essentially conformed to the amino acid composition of the ingested protein, suggesting that the changes in plasma amino acid profile might be a crucial factor in diet-dependent enhancement or depression of the B-cell response.  The findings indicate that the observed effects of altered dietary protein type on humoral immune responsiveness are not exerted centrally on the rate of primary B-lymphocyte production in the bone marrow, but may reflect changes either in the functional responsiveness of the B lymphocytes themselves or in the processes leading to their activation and differentiation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues.


37. Urogenital Cancers

Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) And Glutathione Modulation In Cancer Treatment

Bounous G.
Anticancer Research 20 :4785-4792 (2000)

The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is foremost among the cellular protective mechanisms. Depletion of this small molecule is a common consequence of increased formation of reactive oxygen species during increased cellular activities. This phenomenon can occur in the lymphocytes during the development of the immune response and in the muscular cells during strenuous exercise.  It is not surprising that so much research has been done, and is still being done on this small tripeptide molecule. Whey protein concentrate has been shown to represent an effective and safe cysteine donor for GSH replenishment during GSH depletion in immune deficiency states. Cysteine is the crucial limiting amino acid for intracellular GSH synthesis.  Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey proteins also exhibit anti-carcinogenesis and anticancer activity. They do this via their effect on increasing GSH concentration in relevant tissues, and may have anti-tumor effect on low volume of tumor via stimulation of immunity through the GSH pathway. It is considered that oxygen radical generation is frequently a critical step in carcinogenesis, hence the effect of GSH on free radicals as well as carcinogen detoxification, could be important in inhibiting carcinogenesis induced by a number of different mechanisms.  Case reports are presented which strongly suggest an anti-tumor effect of a whey protein dietary supplement in some .  This non toxic dietary intervention, which is not based on the principles of current cancer chemotherapy, will hopefully attract the attention of laboratory and clinical oncologists.

38. Supports You during Chemotherapy

Enhancing Effect Of Patented Whey Protein Isolate (Immunocal) On The Cytotoxicity Of Anti-Cancer Drug.

Tsai W.Y., Chang W.H., Chen C.H., Lu F.
Nutrition and Cancer, Vol 38, Issue #2 (2000)

To determine the enhancing effect of a whey protein isolate on the cytotoxicity of a potential anti-cancer drug. baicalein, human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was assigned to grow in different media for four days, followed by the investigation of cell growth and apoptosis. Excluding the control group with normal medium, other three treatment media included whey protein isolate (marketed as Immunocal) medium, baicalein medium, and combined medium containing both Irnmunocal and baicalein. MTT assay indicated that cells grew in combined medium had a significantly lower survival rate compared to the cells grew in baicalein medium; in contrast, for the cells grew in Immunocal group, there was no significant difference on survival rate. In the investigation of apoptosis. compared to the cells in baicalein medium, cells in combined medium showed a higher phosphatidylserine exposure, lower rnitochondrial transmembrane potential and nearly 13 times more cells were detected undergoing apoptosis. We also demonstrated that Immunocal was able to reduce glutathione in HepG2 by 20% to 40% and regulated the elevation of glutathione, which was in response to baicalein. In conclusion, Immunocal seemed to enhance the cytotoxicity of baicalein by inducing more apoptosis, this increase in apoptotic cells may be in association with the depletion of GSH in HepG2. This is the first study to demonstrate, in vitro, that Immunocal may function as an adjuvant in cancer treatments.

Chapter 6 Muscular Performance


39. Supports Immune System and Protects Muscle Mass

Competition For Glutathione Precursors Between The Immune System And The Skeletal Muscle: Pathogenesis Of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Bounous G., Molson J.
Med Hypotheses Oct;53(4) :347-9 (1999)

The chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is typically associated or follows a recognized or presumed infection. Abnormalities of both humoral and cellular immunity have been demonstrated in a substantial proportion of patients with CFS. The most consistent findings are of impaired lymphocyte responses to mitogen. As an antioxidant, glutathione (GSH) is essential for allowing the lymphocyte to express its full potential without being hampered by oxiradical accumulation. Hence, protracted challenge of the immunocytes may lead to cellular GSH depletion. Because GSH is also essential to aerobic muscular contraction, an undesirable competition for GSH precursors between the immune and muscular systems may develop. It is conceivable that the priority of the immune system for the survival of the host has drawn to this vital area the ever-diminishing GSH precursors, thus depriving the skeletal muscle of adequate GSH precursors to sustain a normal aerobic metabolism resulting in fatigue and eventually myalgia.


40. Enhanced Muscular Performance in Athletes

The Effect Of Supplementation With A Cysteine Donor On Muscular Performance

Lands L.C., Grey V.L., Smountas A.A.
J Appl Physiol.Oct;87(4) :1381-5 (1999)

Oxidative stress contributes to muscular fatigue. GSH is the major intracellular antioxidant, the biosynthesis of which is dependent on cysteine availability. We hypothesized that supplementation with a whey-based cysteine donor [Immunocal] designed to augment intracellular GSH would enhance performance. Twenty healthy young adults (10 men, 10 women) were studied presupplementation and 3 mo postsupplementation with either Immunocal (20 g/day) or casein placebo. Muscular performance was assessed by whole leg isokinetic cycle testing, measuring peak power and 30-s work capacity. Lymphocyte GSH was used as a marker of tissue GSH. There were no baseline differences (age, ht, wt, %ideal wt, peak power, 30-s work capacity). Follow-up data on 18 subjects (9 Immunocal, 9 placebo) were analyzed. Both peak power [13 +/- 3.5 (SE) %, P < 0.02] and 30-s work capacity (13 +/- 3.7%, P < 0.03) increased significantly in the Immunocal group, with no change (2 +/- 9.0 and 1 +/- 9.3%) in the placebo group. Lymphocyte GSH also increased significantly in the Immunocal group (35.5 +/- 11.04%, P < 0.02), with no change in the placebo group (-0.9 +/- 9.6%). This is the first study to demonstrate that prolonged supplementation with a product designed to augment antioxidant defenses resulted in improved volitional performance.

Chapter 7 AIDS/HIV/ Auto-Immune Diseases

41. Improvement of the Nutritional Status of the Patient with Aids and Cancer

Nutriceutical Modulation Of Glutathione With A Humanized Native Milk Serum Protein Isolate, Immunocal: Application In AIDS And Cancer

Baruchel S., Viau G., Olivier R., Bounous G., Wainberg MA
Marcel Dekker Inc.

The biological activity of the proteins isolated from cow’s milk in Immunocal depends on the preservation of those labile proteins which share with the predominant human milk proteins the same extremely rare glutathione (GSH)-promoting components.  Cellular GSH depletion has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of degenerative conditions and disease states including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, arteriosclerosis, cataracts, cystic fibrosis, malnutrition, aging, AIDS, and cancer.

This newly discovered nutriceutical modulation of GSH by the use of humanized native milk serum protein isolate of bovine origin in AIDS and cancer may well find other applications in disease where oxidative stress and pathology of GSH metabolism are largely implicated.  In a pilot study, this type of whey protein concentrate was found to be well tolerated in children with AIDS and wasting syndrome and was found associated with an improvement of the nutritional status of the patient.  Moreover, the GSH promoting activity on the peripheral blood lymphocyte of this protein concentrate was validated in patients with initial low GSH levels.  Extensive pharmaco-epidemiological study of GSH metabolism and standardized methods of measurement of intracellular GSH applicable in clinical trials are needed in order to better define the clinical application of this new type of therapy.


42. Maintenance of Body Weight in Aids Patents

Whey Proteins As A Food Supplement In HIV-Seropositive Individuals

Bounous G., Baruchel S., Falutz J., Gold P.
Clin Invest Med. Jun;16(3) :204-9 (1993)

On the basis of numerous animal experiments, a pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of undenatured, biologically active, dietary whey protein in 3 HIV-seropositive individuals over a period of 3 months.  Whey protein concentrate was prepared so that the most thermosensitive proteins, such as serum albumin which contains 6 glutamylcysteine groups, would be in undenatured form.  Whey protein powder dissolved in a drink of the patient’s choice was drunk cold in quantities that were increased progressively from 8.4 to 39.2 g per day.  Patients took whey proteins without adverse side effects.  In the 3 patients whose body weight had been stable in the preceding 2 months, weight gain increased progressively between 2 and 7 kg, with 2 of the patients reaching ideal body weight.  Serum proteins, including albumin, remained unchanged and within normal range, indicating that protein replenishment per se was not likely the cause of increased body weight.  The glutathione content of the blood mononuclear cells was, as expected, below normal values in all patients at the beginning of the study.  Over the 3-month period, GSH levels increased and in one case rose by 70% to reach normal value.  The increase in body weight observed in these patients did not correlate with increase in energy or protein intake.

In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that, in patients who maintain an adequate total caloric intake, the addition of “bioactive” whey protein concentrate as a significant portion of total protein intake increases body weight and shows elevation of glutathione (GSH) content of mononuclear cells toward normal levels.  This pilot study will serve as a basis for a much larger clinical trial.


43. Demonstrates the Anti HIV Activity

Anti-HIV and Anti_Apoptotic Activity of the Whey Protein Concentrate: Immunocal

Baruchel S, Olivier R, Wainberg M.

Objectives: The in vivo glutathione (GSH) promoting activity of undenatured Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has already been demonstrated. Here we demonstrate the anti HIV and anti Apoptotic activity of a WPC product termed IMMUNOCAL and its relation with GSH synthesis.

Methods: IMMUNOCAL is produced in linear fashion in order to maintain proteins in a non denatured form and to preserve their glutamyl cysteine residues. We tested the in vitro anti-HIV activity on cord blood mononuclear cells and MT 4 cells by studying each of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, p24 antigen production, and syncytium formation. GSH was measured by spectrophotometric recycling assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry on PBMC from HIV infected individuals (cells were stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide) (n = 6).

Results: An anti HIV activity was found at WPC concentrations between 100 micrograms/ml and 500 micrograms/ml. Inhibition of syncytium formation occurred with a IC50 of 150 micrograms/ml. PBMCs cultured with these WPC concentrations (N = 3) had a statistically significant increase in GSH synthesis when compared to untreated cells, 9.6 +/- 1.5 vs 5.4 +/- nmoles/10(7) cells, p = 0.01. HIV infected PBMCs cultured in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml of WPC were less prone to die of apoptosis than untreated cells, 15% +/- 2.6 vs 37% +/- 2.4 p <0.001.

Conclusion: IMMUNOCAL (WPC) possesses antiviral and anti-apoptotic activities which may be related to its glutathione promoting activity. A clinical trial is currently going on with children with AIDS and wasting syndrome.

44. Helps in HIV Therapy

Place For An Antioxidant Therapy In Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Baruchel S., Bounous G., Gold P.
Oxidative Stress, Cell Activation and Viral Infection – C. Pasquier et al. (eds); 311-321 (1994)

Oxidative stress, a known activator of HIV replication in vitro, has a potential role as a cofactor of HIV disease progression. Arguments supporting the role of oxidative stress as a cofactor in HIV activation are summarized in this review. The role of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), and drugs and nutriceutical agents promoting GSH synthesis, are discussed. The review also includes the early results of nutritional interventions based on a diet enriched with IMMUNOCAL, a whey protein concentrate prepared in a proprietary manner.

Chapter 8 Help and Support for Other Disease States


45. Effective for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis Using Whey Protein (Non-Heated)

Watanabe A., Higuchi K., Okada K., Shimizu Y., Kondo Y., Kohri H.
16th International Congress of Nutrition (Montreal, Canada) (1997)

In an open study, the clinical efficacy of whey protein (Immunocal: cysteine content; 7.6-fold that of casein) isolated from fresh milk and purified without being heated was evaluated based on liver function test, immunological parameters, plasma or lymphocyte GSH concentrations and hepatitis virus markers in 25 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Immunocal (12 g as protein) food (mousse) was given twice a day, in the morning and evening, for 12 weeks (test period).  Casein (12 g as protein) food (mousse) was given for 2 weeks prior to the start of -supplement with Immunocal food (induction period) and for 4 weeks after the end (follow-up period). The effects of Immunocal food on various clinical parameters were examined at 4-week intervals for 18 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of Immunocal. As a result, serum ALT activity decreased in 6 of 8 patients with chronic hepatitis B 12 weeks after the start of supplement with Immunocal food. Plasma GSH concentrations were increased in 5 of the 8 patients. Serum . concentrations of lipid peroxides significantly decreased 8 weeks after Immunocal food. Serum IL-2 levels began to increase 8 weeks and remained high even after supplement with Immunocal -food had ended. Furthermore, NK activity was significantly increased. However, an item correlating with reduced serum ALT activity could not be clarified. In 17 patients with chronic hepatitis C, there wore no significant Immunocal-related changes in liver function test or immunological parameters. These findings suggest that long-term supplement with Immunocal alone may be effective for patients with chronic hepatitis B, and a further clinical study that long-term combination therapy with Immunocal and other agents including interferon may be effective for those with chronic hepatitis C should be performed.


 46. Treats Cystic Fibrosis in Young Adults

Improved Glutathione Status in Young Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Supplemented with Whey Protein

Grey V, Mohammed SR, Smoutas AA, Bahlool R, Lands LC.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Dec. 2003

Background: The lung disease of cystic fibrosis is associated with a chronic inflammatory reaction and an over abundance of oxidants relative to antioxidants. Glutathione functions as a major frontline defense against the build-up of oxidants in the lung. This increased demand for glutathione (GSH) in cystic fibrosis may be limiting if nutritional status is compromised. We sought to increase glutathione levels in stable patients with cystic fibrosis by supplementation with a whey-based protein.

Methods: Twenty-one patients who were in stable condition were randomly assigned to take a whey protein isolate (Immunocal, 10 g twice a day) or casein placebo for 3 months. Peripheral lymphocyte GSH was used as a marker of lung GSH. Values were compared with nutritional status and lung parameters.

Results: At baseline there were no significant differences in age, height, weight, percent ideal body weight or percent body fat. Lymphocyte GSH was similar in the two groups. After supplementation, we observed a 46.6% increase from baseline (P < 0.05) in the lymphocyte GSH levels in the supplemented group. No other changes were observed.

Conclusion: The results show that dietary supplementation with a whey-based product can increase glutathione levels in cystic fibrosis. This nutritional approach may be useful in maintaining optimal levels of GSH and counteract the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in the lung in cystic fibrosis.


47. May Benefit Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder

Oral Tolerability of Cysteine-Rich Whey Protein Isolate in Autism-A Pilot Study

Kern JK, Grannemann BD, Trivedi MH.
JANA Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008

Purpose: To examine the tolerability of non-denatured whey protein isolate (NWPI) in children with autism. Many children with autism are low in glutathione and have higher levels of oxidative stress. NWPI can raise glutathione levels and reduce oxidative stress. However, anecdotal reports suggest that NWPI may be problematic in children with autism because it contains cysteine and other sulfurated amino acids.

Methods: A 6-week open-label trial was conducted, supplementing 10 children with autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 3-15 years of age, with NWPI (Immunocal). To measure possible side effects, procedures that examined the frequency, intensity, and types of side effects, as well as behavioral measures, were completed at baseline, and at days 3, 14, 30 and 45.

Results: Seven of the ten children took the supplement over the six-week trial and tolerated it well. Two children discontinued after two weeks due to possible side effects: one due to gastrointestinal disturbance and one due to being less responsive to parents. Another child discontinued due to difficulty of administering the product.

Conclusions: This study suggests that NWPI can be used as a supplement for this small population of children with autism without high rates of side effects, which means that further studies to determine its safety and efficacy in larger populations might yield the same promising result. Larger studies are planned to determine its efficacy in raising glutathione levels.


48. Helped Protect the Bp, Spleen and Bone Marrow

Effects of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) on the Distributions of Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Rats with Excessive Alcohol Intake.

Tseng YM, Tsai SM, Lin WS, Huang ZR, Lin CC, Yeh WH, Wu YR, Tsai LY.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Number 386, Ta-chung 1st road, Kaohsiung 81346 Taiwan.

To investigate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on antioxidant statuses and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the rats with alcohol intake, the antioxidant statuses in the peripheral blood (PB) and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the PB, spleen, and bone marrow (BM) of the rats fed with WPC (0.334 g/kg) and alcohol (6 g/kg) for 3 months were analyzed. Results showed that the effects of WPC on the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in the PB, the T and B cells in the spleen, and the B cells in the BM were more apparent in the rats with alcohol intake; however, they are not apparent in the controls. Taken together, our results indicated that the immunity of rats might be enhanced by the increased antioxidant ability after WPC supplementation and the effects of WPC on the lymphocyte subpopulations were mainly in the spleen and BM and not in the PB.


49. Improve Muscle Function in Children With C.O.P.D.

Chest. 2002 Apr;121(4):1079-84.

Isokinetic muscle function in COPD.


Montreal Children’s Hospital-McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, PQ, Canada.



Exercise limitation in patients with COPD has been attributed to impaired ventilation and reduced skeletal muscle function. We have previously used a combination of FEV(1) and leg muscle function (work achieved during a 30-s isokinetic sprint test) to predict progressive exercise capacity. However, the 30-s test may not be well tolerated in patients with advanced lung disease. We studied the relationship between progressive exercise capacity, FEV(1), and isokinetic work in patients with COPD and in healthy control subjects to assess whether the work accomplished at time intervals of < 30 s could also be used to predict progressive maximal exercise capacity (Wmax).


Twenty-seven patients with COPD and 29 control subjects underwent anthropometric measures, spirometry, progressive cycle ergometry, and 30-s isokinetic cycling.


There was no significant difference for weight, height, or body mass index between the groups. The COPD group was slightly older and had a significantly lower FEV(1) than control subjects. They also had a lower Wmax (56 +/- 28.3 W vs 141.9 +/- 46.7 W) and isokinetic work accomplished over 10 s (W10), over 15 s (W15), over 20 s (W20), over 25 s (W25), and over 30 s (W30). Wmax correlated in both patients with COPD and in control subjects with W10, W15, W20, W25, W30, and FEV(1). Combining FEV(1) and isokinetic work (W10, W15, W20, W25, or W30) in a two-factor model to predict Wmax, the coefficients of determination (r(2)) for patients with COPD were 0.57, 0.57, 0.58, 0.59, and 0.58, and for control subjects were 0.69, 0.69, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.73, respectively. Wmax correlated with weight only in control subjects.


Both ventilatory function and leg muscle function contribute to exercise limitation, and a 20-s isokinetic test can be utilized to assess leg function in patients with COPD.

PMID: 11948035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


50. May be Beneficial in Mitigating Disease Symptoms in ALS

Nutr Neurosci. 2011 Nov;14(6):249-59. doi: 10.1179/1476830511Y.0000000020.

Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins on apoptosis induced by mitochondrial oxidative stress.


Department of Biological Sciences and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208, USA.



Mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS) is a major factor in the underlying pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of a unique class of nutraceutical antioxidants, anthocyanins, against MOS-induced death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Callistephin and kuromanin are anthocyanins derived from strawberries and black rice, respectively, whose neuroprotective properties have yet to be examined in detail.


Glutathione (GSH)-sensitive MOS and intrinsic apoptosis were induced in CGNs by incubation with the Bcl-2 inhibitor, HA14-1. The effects of anthocyanin co-incubation on CGN survival were assessed.


The anthocyanins demonstrated significant protection from MOS-induced apoptosis which was equivalent to that provided by the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate; however, neither anthocyanin was as effective as GSH at rescuing CGNs. Inhibition of Bcl-2 caused a significant reduction of mitochondrial GSH which was prevented by the anthocyanins. Furthermore, the anthocyanins inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and prevented cardiolipin oxidation induced by MOS in CGNs. MOS-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and proteolytic cleavage of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) fusion GTPase were also attenuated by the anthocyanins. Finally, the anthocyanins significantly enhanced GSH peroxidase activity in a cell-free assay.


These data show that anthocyanins suppress MOS-induced apoptosis by preserving mitochondrial GSH and inhibiting cardiolipin oxidation and mitochondrial fragmentation. These nutraceutical antioxidants warrant further study as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases caused by MOS.

PMID: 22053756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


This Information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases.

Please consult your own physician before changing any treatment.

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